Concepts View

A | C | D | E | F | G | I | M | N | O | R | S | T | W


A physical variation that threatens the functionality of a system or the ability of a system to meet its conditions of existence.


Hill, J., Oderberg, D.S., Bojak, I. and J. Gibbins (2022). “Mistake-making: A theoretical framework for generating research questions in biology, with illustrative Application to Blood clotting.” The Quarterly Review of Biology 97:1–13.


A mode of organization in which a network of interacting parts is subdivided into relatively autonomous yet still connected units.


Wagner, G.P., Pavlicev, M. and J.M. Cheverud. (2007). “The road to modularity.” Nature Reviews Genetics 8:921–931.

Allied Concepts:
Evolvability, Plasticity, Robustness,