Concepts View

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Gaia Hypothesis

The idea that conditions at the Earth’s surface are maintained in a habitable state by self-regulating feedback mechanisms involving life and elements of its abiotic environment.


Lenton, T. et al. (2020). “Selection for Gaia at multiple scales.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 33:633–645.

Gene’s-Eye View of Evolution

A heuristic approach to evolutionary problems based on the suggestion that evolution can be described as a competition between alternative genetic replicators, which behave as if they are seeking to increase their inclusive fitness. In this approach, genes besides the focal gene are treated as part of the environment of the focal gene.


Ågren, A. (2021). The Gene’s-Eye View of Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.