Resources

Mechanism, Vitalism and Organicism

Woodger, J.H. (1929). Biological Principles. London: K. Paul, Trench and Trubner.

Beckner, M. (1968). The Biological Way of Thought. Berkeley and Los Angeles: The University of California Press.

Ghiselin, M.T. (1994). “Darwin’s language may seem teleological, but his thinking was another matter.” Biology and Philosophy 9:489–493.

Russell, E.S. (1945). The Directiveness of Organic Activities. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press.

Smith, J.E.H. (2011). Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Churchill, F.B. (1969). “From machine-theory to entelechy: two studies in developmental teleology.” Journal of the History of Biology 2:165–185.

Amundson, R. and G.V. Lauder (1994). "Function without purpose: the uses of causal role function in evolutionary biology." Biology and Philosophy 9(4): 443–470.

Craver, C.F. (2013). “Functions and mechanisms: a perspectivalist view.” In Functions: selection and mechanisms. Edited by P. Huneman. Spring Dordrecht, 133–158.

Nicholson, D. (2019). “Is the cell really a machine?” Journal of Theoretical Biology 477:108–126.

Mensch, J. (2013). Kant’s Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Peterson, E. (2016). The Life Organic: The Theoretical BIology Club and the Roots of Epigenesis. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Drack, M. (2009). “Ludwig Bertalanffy’s early system approach.” Systems Research and Behavioral Science: https://doi.org/10.1002/sres.992.

Lovejoy, A. (1911). “The meaning of vitalism.” Science 33:610–614.

Breitenbach, A. (2006). “Mechanical explanation of nature and its limits in Kant’s Critique of judgment.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 37(4): 694–711.

Berryman, S. (2009). The Mechanical Hypothesis in Ancient Greek Natural Philosophy. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press.

Allen, G.E. (2005). “Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and early twentieth century biology: the importance of historical context.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36(2):261–283.

Loeb, J. (1912). The Mechanistic Conception of Life: Biological Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Nicholson, D. and R. Gawne. (2015). “Neither logical empiricism nor vitalism but organicism: what the philosophy of biology was.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37:345–381.

Lewens, T. (2004). Organisms and Artifacts: Design in Nature and Elsewhere. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press.

Bertalanffy, L. (1952). Problems of Life: An Evaluation of Modern Biological Thought. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Dresow, M. (2020). “Re-forming morphology: two attempts to rehabilitate the problem of form in the first half of the twentieth century.” Journal of the History of Biology 53: 231–248.

Bowler, P.J. (2001). Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early Twentieth Century Britain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

El-Hani, C. N., & Reis, C. R. M. (2021). Research Strategies and Value Outlooks in Scientific Practices: For an Organicist Thinking and a Pluralist Methodology in the Biological Sciences. Philosophy World Democracy.

Esposito, M. (2014). Romantic Biology, 18901945. New York: Routledge.

Driesch, H. (1908). The Science and Philosophy of Organism, Volume 1. London: Adam and Charles Black.