Function and Teleology

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Pittendrigh, C.S. (1958). "Adaptation, natural selection, and behavior.” In Behavior and Evolution. Edited by A. Roe and G.G. Simpson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 390–416.

Orzack, S.H. and E. Sober. (ed) (2001). Adaptationism and Optimality. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Okasha, S. (2018). Agents and Goals in Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, M.R. (2005). Aristotle on Teleology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lennox, J.G. (2001a). Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals IIV. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Lennox, J.G. (2001b). Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origin of Life Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lennox, J.G. (2019). “Aristotle’s biology.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2019 Edition), Edited by E.N. Zalta:

Rosenblueth, A., Wiener, N. and Bigelow, J. (1943). “Behavior, purpose and teleology.” Philosophy of Science 10:18–24.

Mossio, M. and A. Moreno. (2015). Biological Autonomy. Springer Dordrecht.

Breitenbach, A. (2014). “Biological purposiveness and analogical reflection.” In Kant’s Theory of Biology. Edited by I. Goy and E. Watkins. De Gruyter,

Lennox, J.G. and Kampourakis, K. (2013). “Biological teleology: the need for history.” In The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Edited by K. Kampourakis. Springer Dordrecht.

Kant, I. (1952) [1790]. Critique of Judgement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Ruse, M. (2003). Darwin and Design: Does Evolution Have a Purpose? Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.

Wouters, A. (2007). “Design explanation: determining the constraints on what can be alive.” Erkenntnis 67:65–80.

Russell, E.S. (1945). The Directiveness of Organic Activities. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press.

Kaiser, M. (2018). “ENCODE and the parts of the human genome.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 72:28–37.

Newman, S. A. (2022). Evolution ‘on Purpose’: Teleonomy in Living Systems. In Form, Function, Agency: Sources of Natural Purpose in Animal Evolution. EcoEvoRxiv.

Gould, S.J. and E. Vrba. (1982). “Exaptation--A Missing Term in the Science of Form.” Paleobiology 8(1):4–15.

Leunissen, M. (2010). Explanation and Teleology in Aristotle’s Science of Nature. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dawkins, R. (1982). The Extended Phenotype: The Gene as the Unit of Selection. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McShea, D.W. (2016). “Freedom and purpose in biology.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 58:64–72.

Wouters, A. (2004). “The function debate in philosophy.” Acta Biotheoretica 53:123–151.